German South West Africa (German: Deutsch-Südwestafrika) was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1915, though Germany did not officially recognise its loss of this territory until the 1919 Treaty of Versailles.With a total area of 835,100 km², it was one and a half times the size of the mainland German Empire in Europe at the time. He married Dorothea Elizabeth Kriele who passed away on 25 May 1951. He was the mission Superintendent at Pietermaritzburg since 1910. Between Worlds: German Missionaries and the Transition from Mission to Bantu Education in South Africa scrutinises the experience of a hitherto unexplored German mission society, probing the complexities and paradoxes of social change in education. Please do not use these photos without permission from the copyright holder. South Africa Johannesburg Mission South Africa Mission 1970-1974 Swedish Mission 1905 Peter Matson extant Organized from Scandinavian Mission Sweden Stockholm Mission Sweden Mission 1970-1974 French Mission 1912 Edgar B. Brossard 1914 Tongan Mission 1916 Willard L. Smith extant Organized from Samoan Mission Tonga Nuku'alofa Mission Between Worlds: German Missionaries and the Transition from Mission to Bantu Education in South Africa scrutinises the experience of a hitherto unexplored German mission society, probing the complexities and paradoxes of social change in education. He arrived in South Africa during 1894 and passed away in Potchefstroom on 29 August 1944 (Aged 74). German missionaries established themselves at various centres in South Africa. He added that during 1881, he had about 250 active Christians at the mission station. Twee Duiters oor Transvaal in die 19de eeu. The first mission station was founded on the far side of the Orange River and was named Bethanien. On the one hand they were driven by a strong desire to genuinely serve humanity and bring about material and social changes which would improve its quality of life. Kropf published a much-valued Xhosa/English dictionary during 1899. Taurat was born in Germany on 23 June 1868. The mission station " Wangemannshöh " in German East Africa, (Tanzania), was named after him. [1] There were unsuccessful early attempts to evangelise the Swazi and in Sekhukhuneland. The themes of his drawings vary from South African landscapes to six drawings of places in the Middle East. Here were established a school, seminary, workshops, mill and printing press; and from here BMS influence spread throughout the Transvaal. The Berlin Missionary Society was one of four German Protestant mission societies active in South Africa before 1914. Search. In 1961 the BMS established a branch in West Berlin, which remained in contact with its only remaining missionary field, namely in South Africa, for the next 28 years. Significant about each of the photographs included in this article is that they were taken more than a 130 years ago in Germany prior to the missionaries’ departure to South Africa. It proved unable to speak and act decisively against injustice and racial discrimination and was disbanded in 1972.[5]. He passed away, aged 61, on 15 April 1929 at the Arkona mission station (old Transvaal) where he also lays buried today. These photographs would more than likely have formed part of the Berlin Mission Station staff files. Kropf was born in Germany on 27 March 1822. Wangemenn was born on 27 March 1818 in Wilsnack and passed away in Berlin on 18 June 1894 aged 76. It emerged from the German tradition of Pietism after 1815 and sent its first missionaries to South Africa in 1834. He remarried Clementine Katharina Kuhne. Missionary work during the 1800s and early 1900s was clearly a very male dominated field. [1], Gunther Pakendorf, "A Brief History of the Berlin Mission Society in South Africa,", American Presbyterian Mission (1867). & Boshoff, W (2015). By 1900 there were more than thirty six stations and nearly 30,000 converts in the region. The missionaries emphasized teachings of never questioning authority and accepting colonial rule as ordained by God. Many missionaries with close ties to Berlin also had been working in South Africa for the London Missionary Society and the Rhenish Mission resulting in South Africa being chosen as the first country where mission field work was conducted by the BMS. Included amongst the batch of photographs were images of two unidentified females, who may have been married to one of the men mentioned above. Missionaries saw the voyages to Africa by their governments as an opportunity for them to spread the teaching of the Christian faith. A second missionary field in China arose after Germany declared Shantung to be within their sphere of political and colonial influence in 1896. At all times the BMS emphasized spiritual inwardness, and puritanical values such as morality, hard work and self-discipline. The publication in 1904 by the British and Foreign Bible Society of this combined effort was the first complete Bible in an indigenous language. (extracted January 2019). He passed away in Pinetown on 30 September 1944 (Aged 75). contemporary Africa in such a way that they underline a critical shift in the epicenter of Christianity from the North to the South. On 23 September 1828 the missionary groups from Elberfeld, Barmen and Cologne (Köln) decided to amalgamate to form the Rhenish Mission Society. South Africa and Namibia. BETWEEN WORLDS: German Missionaries and the Transition from Mission to Bantu Education in South AfricaLinda ChisholmWits University Press Mission schools have a mixed reputation in former colonies. Hoffman was born in Germany on 2 August 1868 and arrived in South Africa during 1894. Marasas was born in Germany on 30 July 1869. A number of missionaries with close ties to Berlin had been working here for the London Missionary Society and the Rhenish Mission, and thus South Africa was chosen as the first mission field. His first wife, Caroline Wilhelmine Hauffe, whom he married during 1847, passed away in Stutterheim on 10 February 1898. Ambassador: Walter Lindner - Ambassador. Many photos are submitted by heritage enthusiasts across the country. Much More than a Mafia: Mavericks, Mentors, and Medical Maestros. … Website: www.southafrica.diplo.de. Next the focus shifted to the Eastern Cape where Ludwig Döhne started the first Berlin Mission Station in this troubled area during 1836. pp v-vi, Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa, Presbyterian Church in the Republic of Korea, List of Protestant missionary societies in China (1807–1953), Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO), Evangelische Kirche - Berlin Missionary Society, The Berlin Mission Society and Black Europeans: The cases of Klaus Kuhn, Jan Sekoto and Gerard Sekoto, Richard Miles: Motswana preacher "to the native tribes beyond the border, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Berlin_Missionary_Society&oldid=994333139, Religious organizations established in 1824, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 04:34. Places Amalienstein, a Mission Station in the Western Cape; Anhalt-Schmidt, a Mission Station in Little Karoo; Botshebelo Township, near Middleburg; General Galleries. As mission director, he encouraged missionary effectiveness through tight organisation. Missionary settlement in Southern Africa 1800-1925. The 31 images contained in the album are mainly of missionaries who did duty in South Africa (12 images), East Africa (6 images) & China (3 images). Johann Heinrich Albert Kropf - German Missionary via Carol Hardijzer. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press. [7], Another gifted African student who had started out with violin lessons and was to follow in Kuhn’s footsteps to Ducherow and then the theological seminary in Berlin was one Jan Sekoto. Kropf attributes the slow growth of the mission population to the station being destroyed twice (during 1846 and 1851), resulting in membership scattering and the mission needing to commence anew after each of these destructions. [8], Niklaas Koen, a “Khoikhoi”, was sent by the BMS to Germany in 1875 to further his education at a high school at Ducherow in Pomerania and afterwards to study for the ministry at the Berlin Missionshaus, where he adopted a German version of his name, Klaus Kuhn. A number of missionaries with close ties to Berlin had been working here for the London Missionary Society and the Rhenish Mission, and thus South Africa was chosen as the first mission field. The latter keeps well established ties with the Presbyterian Church in the Republic of Korea (est. Diplomatic representation of Germany. Dietrich was born in Germany on 3 February 1868. Information on consular services of the Germany Embassy in Pretoria. They had a vocation to the religious life, and were eager to have a specific common rule of life. Missionary settlement in Southern Africa 1800-1925. They used some of the British Empire’s resources and then in turn the empire coerced them to use their teaching to subdue the Africans. In 1885 on 1 September, as a result of his enthusiastic articles in the German Catholic press, five young German women travelled to South Africa to join his missionary work. [3] There were few positive reports in the early years, but it was especially active 1859-1914. Later the BMS in China merged with the German East Asia Mission (German: Deutsche Ostasienmission), which in 1972 was integrated into the still existing Berlin Missionary Endowment (German: Berliner Missionswerk). German Embassy in South Africa. Many additional stations followed which became the main focus of the BMS in South Africa. We provide general information about the Germany Embassy in South Africa. Paul the Apostle: One of the greatest missionaries of all times. “ Between Worlds: German Missionaries and the Transition from Mission to Bantu Education in South Africa” scrutinizes the experience of a hitherto unexplored German mission society, probing the complexities and paradoxes of social change in education. Their work was interrupted by the Anglo Boer War, during which BMS missionary Daniel Heese was murdered by members of the Bushveldt Carbineers, an irregular regiment of the British Army. Related Content. [1] Wangemann. Amongst the South African group of images, 10 missionaries have been identified and are presented in this article. Early Christian missionaries. Jeppe en H.T. The areas of German South West Africa (now Namibia) were formally … Landbeskrywing van F.H. (www.safrika.org/berlin). Wrote ‘Missionary Labours and Scenes in South Africa’ (1842), and translated the Catechism as well as the New Testament into the Tswana language. Wangemann played a significant role in developing mission work in South Africa and later in China and Tanzania. The remainder of the images had no inscriptions on them, making it almost impossible to identify the missionary that was photographically captured. Kratzenstein was based at Bethel (now Stutterheim) at some stage. If for any reason none appear click here for some troubleshooting tips. He not only collects anything relating to photography, but also extensively conducts research in this field. Recently the author acquired a Victorian Photo album which contained a number of Carte-de-Visite format photographs of Berlin Mission Society missionaries, all attached to the German Lutheran church in Berlin (dating from between 1865 and late 1870s). He often published his works relating to his journeys. Of particular interest to Carol are historical South African photographs. South Africa. Office Hours: Please see official website Twice married into aristocracy, Wangemann had intimate friends in high places and was acquainted with Bismarck. Van der Heyden, U (1); Van Heyden, U (2). Fortunately, research by both German and Missionary historians has resulted in sufficient information being recorded on most of the missionaries, which makes the sharing of the images more impactful. Missionaries Alexander Merensky and Heinrich Grützner started work in the north eastern part of the South African Republic in 1860, their first station being at Gerlachshoop. The Germany Embassy in Pretoria - South Africa. Further missionaries arrived in 1836/7, with Jacob Ludwig Döhne setting up BMS stations Bethel and Itemba amongst the Xhosa in a part of the Eastern Cape then known as Kaffraria. It was especially strong in the Boer Republics. Missionary settlement in Southern Africa 1800-1925. Upon arriving in the southern Free State, and on advice from the London Mission Society’s G.A. The BMS began the training of its first missionaries in 1829, with assistance from missionary societies in Pomerania and East Prussia. European missionaries to southern Africa during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries played a strangely ambiguous role in the history and affairs of the region. He passed away in Bergville on 2 June 1940 (aged almost 71). His first visit was between 17 September 1866 and 26 September 1867 during which he was critical of how the white colonists treated their black staff or the local population. World War I cut off contact with Germany, but the missions continued at a reduced pace. In 1883 Franz Adolf Lüderitz, a merchant from Bremen, Germany, established a trading post in southwest Africa at Angra Pequena, which he renamed Lüderitzbucht. (1999). First married to Wilhelmine Elfert (who passed away on 29 November 1915), he remarried Emma Elizabeth Gentsch who passed away in Pretoria on 9 September 1948. He remarried Augusta Maria Johl during 1902. After 1945 the missionaries had to deal with the decolonisation of Africa and especially with the apartheid government. The German mission societies in South Africa included the Berlin Mission Society (which is the focus of this article), the Hermannsburg, the Moravian and Rhinish Mission Societies. His first wife Elisabeth died two days after the birth of their daughter Anna, who married a Johannes Winter in later years. Hardijzer Photographic Research Collections. However, from 1962 it began granting independence to its mission churches which, in time, became amalgamated with other Lutheran mission churches in the region and formed the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa. In 1848 he returned to South Africa to assist in establishing a Mission Station but when the 8 th Frontier War broke out Tiyo went back to Scotland, where he was ordained in December 1856. It was as part of this process that Africans, duly trained and sometimes salaried, were accepted into the Society as teachers, catechists and lay-preachers, the so-called Nationalhelferen or national helpers. Kropf confirmed that he worked with local leaders Ndhlambes (under chief Umhala) and Gaikas (under chief Sandili). R R ottcher Wineries’ lineage goes back to Muden near Greytown in KwaZulu-Natal, when a German missionary by the name Reverend Heinrich Rottcher and his family established the Sonnengold Orange Winery in 1916 – the first orang e-based wine-making recorded in South Africa – to supply communion wine for the mission. Unknown (extracted January 2019). He arrived in South Africa during 1897. History of German Missionaries in South Africa. It is interesting that God chose a … About the author: Carol is passionate about South African Photographica – anything and everything to do with the history of photography. He arrived in South Africa during 1896 and passed away in Zimbabwe on 23 January 1924 (aged almost 56). He trained as a printer in Germany prior to arriving in South Africa during 1845. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. Van der Heyden, U. (Extracted January 2019). The BMS sent its first missionaries to South Africa in 1833. In time, further stations were started in the colony. German South West Africa, a former German colony (1884–1919) that is now the nation of Namibia, in southwestern Africa. The establishment of Emmaus near present day Bergville in 1847 thus brought the first German missionaries to Natal. The Society supported work in South Africa, China and East Africa. He served as a missionary in South Africa for some 60 years. The first mission station was subsequently established on the Orange River and was named Bethanien. [7], The BMS also sent workers to China in 1869 during the late Qing Dynasty, but it was not before 1882 that the Society officially declared Canton as its mission field, inheriting a station of the Rhenish Mission. Windisch was born in Germany on 12 April 1870. The missions also united across denominations. Both World Wars, when access to funding became severely limited, caused even greater disruption. Consulate of Germany in Port Elizabeth, South Africa The EmbassyPage for Germany's consulate in Port Elizabeth has updated and verified contact details for the mission, including address, telephone number, fax number and email address, as well as information about the … It emerged from the German tradition of Pietism after 1815 and sent its first missionaries to South Africa in 1834. Does anyone have material on the Holpan Diamond Diggings? During colonialism in South Africa they defied the government and educated black students at a time when the colonial governments forbade this … Zoellner, L. & Heese, J.A. Interestingly, Kropf adds during the interview that he would not admit a polygamist to baptism or church privileges. He travelled before photography became the standard means of recording journeys of this nature. Kolbe at Philippolis, it was decided instead to establish a mission amongst the Korana at a spot on the Riet River, which they named Bethanien, in September 1834. He was married to Anna Charlotte Canin who passed away in Boksburg on 24 July 1952. Given his two study directions, Wangemann was not only a theologist but also a linguist. Unknown (Extracted January 2019). Hence the Society’s missionaries were often at the forefront of publishing Bible translations, dictionaries and grammars in indigenous languages. The considerable contribution of St John’s College to Medicine. [7], The Tswana Catechist Richard Miles was an early example of an indigenous person fulfilling this role at the Mission Station at Bethanie in the Southern Free State. THE ROLE OF MISSIONARIES The legacy of Christian missionaries in Africa lives up to this day. The last area to be focused on by the BMS was the North-Eastern areas of South Africa where Merensky and Grützner established their first mission station during 1860 called Gerlachshoop. Miles traveled to the interior with the missionary party in 1835. Many questions arise around the existence of the album. If there is no additional booking confirmation, the traveler may be denied entry by the German Federal Police. Jones, T.J. (1922) Education in Africa: A Study of West, South, and Equatorial Africa by the African Education Commission, under the auspices of the Phelps-Stokes Fund and Foreign Mission Societies of North America and Europe. Merensky sought refuge amongst his Christian converts in the Middelburg district and founded the station at Botshabelo (“city of refuge”) – which soon became the most important station of the Berlin Society in South Africa. It was on these travels that he recorded diary inscriptions with sketches. They were subsequently replaced by Betshuanas. He passed away in Boksburg on 16 August 1924 (Aged 68). These are missionaries who predate the Second Council of Nicaea so it may be claimed by both Catholic and Orthodoxy or belonging to early Christian groups.. Alopen – first missionary to China (Nestorian); Apollos; Augustine of Canterbury – missionary to England; Saint Barnabas; Saint Boniface – influential in the conversion of German peoples Hoffmann attempted to record African history and cultural practices with a view to preserving them for posterity by rendering orally presented knowledge into written and printed text. Fax Number: (+27) (0)12 427 8969. The missionaries Posselt and Güldenpfennig founded the first BMS station in Natal during 1847 and named it Emmaus. It raises challenging questions about the nature of mission education legacies. 6 . When a Schengen visa is issued, the German Missions in South Africa cannot foresee that the booked accommodation will still be open at the time of arrival in Germany. The probability exists that some of the remaining images without inscriptions could also have been South African based missionaries. The missionaries emphasized teachings of never questioning authority and accepting colonial rule as ordained by God. Whilst much may have been published on most of the missionaries listed below, the primary purpose of this article is to share the images in the public domain. In 1885 on 1 September, as a result of his enthusiastic articles in the German Catholic press, five young German women travelled to South Africa to join his missionary work. German Embassy in Pretoria, South Africa - 201 Florence Ribeiro Avenue - Groenkloof, 0181, Pretoria - South Africa Telephone Number: (+27) (0)12 427 8900. Hoffmann was among the most prolific 19th and 20th century authors employed by the Berlin Missionary Society. Places Amalienstein, a Mission Station in the Western Cape; Anhalt-Schmidt, a Mission Station in Little Karoo; Botshebelo Township, near Middleburg; General Galleries. Missionaries saw the voyages to Africa by their governments as an opportunity for them to spread the teaching of the Christian faith. He was married to Martha Ney who passed away on 14 February 1949. Although there is limited information available about Kratzenstein, it is known that he was a mission historian who published his works accordingly. Moreover, after World War II the Society's Berlin headquarters fell within the Soviet Zone of Occupied Germany. This mission station did not get off to a good start, mainly due to the local population, the Korannas drifting off. The role that their wives played (for those who married), has certainly been underestimated in that very little has been captured in literature about their roles at mission stations. After 1945 the missionaries had to deal with the decolonisation o… He got married to Auguste Marie Sandrock in South Africa on 12 October 1898, but she passed away during July 1914 whereafter he remarried Luise Henriette Brune during 1916. Due to the slow progress, the BMS gladly accepted the invitation by the British authorities to start work in the new colony of Natal. Memorials of Protestant Missionaries to the Chinese. During the Frontier War of 1846 to 1847, these stations were abandoned and the missionaries sought safety in the neighbouring British colony of Natal. The Berlin Mission started sending missionaries to South Africa in 1833. The Berlin missionaries in South Africa, particularly Alexander Merensky, Knothe, Trümpelmann, Schwellnus and Eiselen, contributed to the study of African languages, producing Bible translations and hymnals. All the photographs of the missionaries included in this article were taken in Berlin, Germany. After studying theology and philology (the branch of knowledge that deals with the structure, historical development, and relationships of a language or languages) at the University of Berlin, Wangemann first held a position as tutor in  Bern between 1840 & 1844. New York: Phelps-Stokes Fund. He first married Luise Wiedermann (who passed away some 4 years after their marriage). She passed away in Potchefstroom on 13 May 1941. By contrast, the Moravians (Herrnhuter), who were the first German missionaries in southern Africa in 1737, sent their children to school in Germany. Comments will load below. Missionaries with ties to Berlin had been working there with the London Missionary Society and Rhenish Missionary Society, making South Africa an obvious choice, with the initial objective being to set up a mission to the Tswana. The Berlin Missionary Society (BMS) or Society for the Advancement of evangelistic Missions amongst the Heathen (German: Berliner Missionsgesellschaft or Gesellschaft zur Beförderung der evangelischen Missionen unter den Heiden) was a German Protestant (Lutheran) Christian missionary society that was constituted on 29 February 1824 by a group of pious laymen from the Prussian nobility. Related Content. They used some of the British Empire’s resources and then in turn the empire coerced them to use their teaching to subdue the Africans. 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